Friends of monmouth Battlefield

World of the Common Soldier

(Articles, Published and Unpublished)

John U. Rees
2590 North Sugan Road
New Hope, PA 18938
Phone: (215) 208-8778

John Rees' most recent research can be found at the following sites:

Complete collection:

Monmouth articles only:

Monmouth Campaign and Battle

“‘What is this you have been about to day?’: The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth,”


1. Introduction

2. "In readiness to march at a moment's warning ...": Pre‑Battle Dispositions and Plans

3. "To get up with the enemy": Major General Charles Lee's Force Sets Off

4. "I found the whole of the troops upon my right retreating ...": Morning Confrontation at Monmouth Courthouse

5. "The day was so excessively hot ...": Lee’s Retreat

6. “They answered him with three cheers ...”:Washington Recovers the Day

7. “The Action was Exceedingly warm and well Maintained …”: Infantry Fighting at the Point of Woods, Hedge-row, and Parsonage

8. "The finest musick, I Ever heared.": Afternoon Artillery Duel, and Cilley’s Attack on the 42nd Regiment

9. “Detached to assist in burying the dead …”: Battle’s Aftermath

10. “The March has proved salutory to the troops.”: Post-Battle: The Continental Army Moves North

11.“A very irregular & ill managed Embarkation.”: Post-Battle British March to Sandy Hook

12. "The defective constitution of our army ...": Casting Blame for the Morning Debacle

13. Battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778: Event Synopsis


A. “Beware of being Burgoyned.”: Marching Toward Monmouth, Delaware River to Freehold, 18 to 27 June 1778

B. “The whole army moved towards the Delaware …”: Continental Army March from Valley Forge to Englishtown, N.J., 18 to 27 June 1778

C. “General Lee being detached with the advanced Corps …”: Composition of Charles Lee’s Force

D. “Our Division formed a line on the eminence …”: Washington’s Main Army Order of Battle, 28 June 1778

E. “A large Number of troops …”: Continental and British Army Field Returns, 28 June 1778

F. “I resolved nevertheless to attack them …”: American Monmouth Battle Accounts

G. “Charge, Grenadiers, never heed forming”: British Accounts of the Monmouth Battle

H. "More Glorious to America than at first Supposed ...": New Jersey Officers Describe the Battle of Monmouth

I. "They answered him with three cheers ...": New Jersey Common Soldiers' Pension Depositions

J. “A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.”: Maxwell’s Jersey Brigade Artillery and the Afternoon Cannonade at Monmouth

K. “Jun 29th, Buried the Dead …”: Casualties in the Battle of Monmouth

L. “We are informed by several persons …: Contemporary Newspaper Accounts

M. “That damned blue Regiment …”: Continental Army Clothing during the Monmouth Campaign

N. “General Wayne's detachment is almost starving.”: Provisioning Washington’s Army on the March, June 1778

O. “The canopy of heaven for our tent”: Soldiers' Shelter on Campaign, June 1778

P. “Be pleased to fill up the vacancy with the eldest Captain in the line …”: Field Officers, Commissioned Officers, and Staff of the 2nd New Jersey Regiment December 1777 to May 1779

Q. “Exceeding Hot & water is scarce …”: Monmouth Campaign Weather, 15 June to 7 July, 1778

A very smart cannonading ensued from both sides.’: Continental Artillery at Monmouth Courthouse, 28 June 1778” (Including information on artillery attached to the New Jersey Brigade)

 “‘Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The March from Valley Forge to Monmouth Courthouse, 18 to 28 June 1778”



1. “We struck our tents and loaded our baggage.”: Leaving Valley Forge

2. Progress, June 18, 1778.

3. Progress, June 19, 1778.

4. “Crost the dilliware   pushed on about 5 milds …”: June 20, 1778: Progress and a River Crossing

5. “4 Wagons & Horses, and 1000 Men at a Try.”: The Mechanics of Ferrying an Army

6. “Halt on the first strong ground after passing the Delaware ...”: June 20th River Crossing

7. “The number of boats … will render the passage of the troops very expeditious.”: June 21st Ferry Operation

8. “The Troops are passing the River … and are mostly over.”: June 22d Crossing

9. “The Army will march off …”: June 22d and 23d, Camp at Amwell Meeting

10. “Just after we halted we sent out a large detachment …”: Camp and Council: Hopewell Township, 23 to 24 June

11. “Giving the Enemy a stroke is a very desireable event …”: Advancing to Englishtown, 24 to 28 June

  1. Progress, June 25, 1778.
  2. Progress, June 26, 1778.
  3. Progress, June 27, 1778.
  4. Forward to Battle, June 28, 1778.  

12. “Our advanced Corps … took post in the evening on the Monmouth Road …”: Movements of Continental Detachments Followng the British, 24 to 28 June 1778

  1. The Advance Force: Scott’s, Wayne’s, Lafayette’s, and Lee’s Detachments.
  2. Daily Movements of Detachments Later Incorporated into Lee’s Advanced Corps.

13. Echoes of 1778, Three Years After.


1. Driving Directions, Continental Army Route from Valley Forge to Englishtown

2. Day by Day Recap of Route

3. The Road to Hopewell.

4. The Bungtown Road Controversy.

5. Weather During the Monmouth Campaign

6. Selected Accounts of the March from Valley Forge to Englishtown

a. Fifteen-year-old Sally Wister

b. Surgeon Samuel Adams, 3rd Continental Artillery

c. Henry Dearborn, lt. colonel, 3rd New Hampshire Regiment

d. Captain Paul Brigham, 8th Connecticut Regiment

e. Sergeant Ebenezer Wild, 1st Massachusetts Regiment

f. Sgt. Jeremiah Greenman, 2d Rhode Island Regiment

g. Dr. James McHenry, assistant secretary to General Washington

7. List of Related works by the author on military material culture and the

Continental Army

Endnotes contain:

1. Army General and Brigade Orders, June 1778.

a. Orders Regulating the Army on the March from Valley Forge.

b. Orders Issued During the Movement from Valley Forge to Englishtown.

2. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army to 22 June 1778

3. Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry,

4. Wheeled Transportation (a primer on the vehicles and artillery on the road to Monmouth, including twenty-one illustrations)

5. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army after 22 June 1778

"Eyewitness to Battle: Alexander Dow's Account of Monmouth," The Brigade Dispatch, vol. XXIX, no. 1 (Spring 1999), 15-16.

“The common necessaries of life …” A Revolutionary Soldier’s Wooden Bowl,” including, “‘Left sick on the Road’: An Attempt to Identify the Soldier Left at the Paxson Home, ‘Rolling Green,’ June 1778.”)

“‘The pleasure of their number’: 1778, Crisis, Conscription, and Revolutionary Soldiers’ Recollections”

Part I. “‘Filling the Regiments by drafts from the Militia.’: The 1778 Recruiting Acts”

Part II. "’Fine, likely, tractable men.’: Levy Statistics and New Jersey Service Narratives”

Part III. "He asked me if we had been discharged …”: New Jersey, Massachusetts, NewYork, Maryland, and North Carolina Levy Narratives”

ALHFAM Bulletin, vol. XXXIII, no. 3 (Fall 2003), 23-34; no. 4 (Winter 2004), 23-34;  vol. XXXIV, no. 1 (Spring 2004), 19-28. 

"'The Great Neglect in provideing Cloathing’: Uniform Colors and Clothing in the New Jersey Brigade During the Monmouth Campaign of 1778":

"The Jersey Blues:" The New Jersey Regiments, 1755-1776

"Never...Our Proper Quantity:" The New Jersey Brigade of 1777

"The Regiments Have No Uniforms or Distinguishing Colours:" Uniform Coats and the New Jersey Brigade During 1778

“The following Articles of Cloathing …”: 1778 Nine Months Levies’ Apparel

“Only a few light things in the Spring.": Clothing the Jersey Brigade’s Long Term Soldiers, 1778

Military Collector & Historian, two parts: vol. XLVI, no. 4. (Winter 1994), 163-170; vol. XLVII, no. 1 (Spring 1995), 12-20. Part I and Part II

June 2013 Battle of Monmouth "Recreated New Jersey Continental Regiment Augmented With Nine-months Levies" (June 1778 Roster for Capt. Jonathan Phillips' Company, 2d New Jersey Regiment. For members and friends of the Augusta County Militia interested in portraying a New Jersey Continental company with both long-term soldiers and nine-month drafts from the militia during the 1778 Monmouth Campaign)

“‘I have ... got the Arms from Easton, [and] is now divideing them out.’: Clothing and Equipment Needed to Recreate a 1778 New Jersey Continental Company Augmented with Nine-Months Levies”

“‘Knowledge necessary to a soldier …’: The Continental Officer’s Military Reading List, 1775-1778,” Military Collector & Historian, vol. 59, no. 1 (Spring 2007), 65-71.

Steuben's original Instructions March-April 1778, as written in regimental order books at Valley Forge (Transcribed by Matthew Murphy, February 2003; Transcription of original manuscript of Steuben's Discipline)

Steuben s Regulations for the Order and Discipline of Troops 1807; Later edition of Maj. Gen. Friedrich Wilhelm de Steuben's Manual of Exercise and Maneuver (substantially the same as the Blue Book published in 1779)

 “‘None of you know the hardships of A soldiers life …’: Service of the Connecticut Regiments in Maj. Gen. Alexander McDougall’s Division, 1777-1778” (Mss., author’s collection, 2009)

“I am … Packing up my baggage in order to March”: Service on the North River, and Movement into Pennsylvania, May to September 1777

“God Grant I may Always be Preserv'd …”: The Battle of Germantown and Schuylkill Expedition, October 1777

“So small A Garrison never attaind Greater achievments …”: Forts Mifflin and Mercer, and Maneuvers in New Jersey, November 1777

“Nothing to cover us But ye heavens …”: The Whitemarsh Encampment and Early Days at Valley Forge, December 1777

“This is a very Different Spirit in the Army …”: Wintering Over at Valley Forge and Spring Training, January to June 1778

“Sixty three bullet holes were made through the colours …”: Summer Campaign and the Battle of Monmouth, June 1778

“The Troops of the whole line will exercise and manoeuvre …”: The March to New York and the White Plains Encampment, July to September 1778

“The Enemy are upon the eve of some general and important move.”: The Fredericksburgh Camp and Shifting Commanders, September to October 1778

“Their countrymen would … conclude the Devil was in them …”: McDougall’s Division Takes Post in Connecticut, October and November 1778

“Grievances … Justly complained of by your Soldiers …”: The Connecticut Line Winter Camp, December 1778 to January 1779

"'None of you know the hardships of A soldiers life …': Service of the Connecticut Regiments of Maj. Gen. Alexander McDougall’s Division, 1777-1778" and Bibliography/Appendix to "None of you know the hardships of A soldiers life …': Service of the Connecticut Regiments of Maj. Gen. Alexander McDougall’s Division, 1777-1778"

"`We ...  got ourselves cleverly settled for the night': Soldiers' Shelter on Campaign During the War for Independence," part IV, "`We are now ... properly ... enwigwamed.': British Soldiers and Brush  Huts, 1776-1781": Overview

"Laying up poles and covering them with leaves ...": Building Brush Huts

Comparative Use of Makeshift Shelters in the French and Indian War,  and American Civil War

Military Collector & Historian, vol. 55, no. 2 (Summer 2003), 89-96. part VI,    "`We built up housan of branchis & leavs ...’: Continental Army Brush Shelters, 1778-1782


A. "Found the regiment lying in bush huts ...": Continental Troops on  Campaign and on the March, 1778-1780.

B. "Pine huts," "Huts of rails," and "Bush Tents":  Virginia and the Carolinas, 1781-1782.

C. "Return of Camp Equipage":More on Tents.

Military Collector & Historian, vol. 56, no. 2 (2004), 98-106.

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